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Thursday, June 6

  1. page Hippias edited Hippias of Athens- Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος ... the {hippias.jpg} death of his

    Hippias of Athens- Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος
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    the {hippias.jpg} death of his
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    8:46 am

Friday, November 9

  1. page Mastertimeline edited ... August 479 BCE: The Battle of Plataea 450 BCE -Herodotus makes his journeys to North Africa, …
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    August 479 BCE: The Battle of Plataea
    450 BCE -Herodotus makes his journeys to North Africa, describing the tribes of ancient Libya.Libyans
    ~430 BCE: HerodotusThracian Wife-Suicide Contests
    ~433-411 BCE: Thucydides
    446-433 Pericles peak of Athenian PowerPericles son of Xianthippus
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    10:19 am

Thursday, November 8

  1. page Thebes and Aegina's Hatred of Athens edited ... Questions Why would the Thebans believe the Oracle would be referring to Eginetans? This pa…
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    Questions
    Why would the Thebans believe the Oracle would be referring to Eginetans?
    This part is still unclear except that maybe they were just considering who was closest and who would be the most likely ally to fight Athens.
    Why would the Oracle also suggest to ask nearby allies when they have always helped out before?
    There is not a clear reason except for the assumption that Aegina had a powerful navy and deep hatred for Athens so they probably proved to be the most effective enemy against Athens for Thebes.
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    They revolted because over time they always had to pass through Epidauras and pay tribute but eventually they built up a navy and fought back. When they were pillaging, they ended up taking the images also. However it is unsure if they truly knew the significance or were just taking whatever looked important.
    What caused the thunderclap and drove the Athenian men to kill each other when trying to take the signs back?
    Both sources that tell of this event state that an earthquake did happen and since this area has lots of earthquake activity, it is safe to assume they were correct. However whether the men all turned on each in a crazed frenzy or were slaughtered by another enemy is still truly unknown.
    How many Athenian ships actually went to get the signs and who's story is more accurate on what happened during the earthquake?
    More than likely the Athenian's story is only partially correct, while Aegina's is more accurate since other sources line up with theirs more. The Athenians might have captured the images but they probably sent more than one ship also.
    Citations
    Hellenica. http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Cities/Aegina.html.
    Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aegina.
    Podlecki, A.J. "Athens and Aegina." Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/4435518.
    Unanswered Questions
    We are still unsure of who's story is more accurate on what happened. Whether there was one ship or multiple ships and if the troops went mad or were attacked. Were also unsure is the oracle herself even meant for Aegina to be sought out, as successful as the attack was.

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    2:45 pm
  2. page trireme edited {220px-Model_of_a_greek_trireme.jpg} {images96.jpg} A trireme was just a militaristic ship use…
    {220px-Model_of_a_greek_trireme.jpg} {images96.jpg}
    A trireme was just a militaristic ship used in ancient Greece to transport soldiers or battle other ships

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  3. file images96.jpg uploaded
    2:23 pm
  4. page Intolerance of Intermarriage edited ... What We Can Learn Intolerance was not a theme uncommon to the ancient world. In fact, it isn'…
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    What We Can Learn
    Intolerance was not a theme uncommon to the ancient world. In fact, it isn't really a theme that is uncommon in today's world. However, in the case of ancient Scythia, new cultures and ideas were met with a much more closed mind than those of today. This excerpt shows us just a small piece of the way with which new cultures and ideas were met in ancient times. Though this passage (written by Herodotus) only has two short stories within it, we really can learn the extent of the intolerance the Scythian's had. Scythia was not a Greek territory. The Scythians were an Iranian nomadic people living in present day Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The territory covered by Scythia ranged from the Black Sea to southern Siberia to central Asia. The Scythians had their own religion, customs, and way of life, vastly different from the Greeks.
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    the east.
    These two stories show the extent to which the Scythians would go to preserve customs and keep out foreign customs. Herodotus really said it best at the end of this passage by stating, "thus rigidly do the Scythians maintain their own customs, and thus severly do they punish such as adopt foreign usages." But is this intolerance something that was more widely practiced across Greece during ancient times? Would these men have been killed if they had been of original Scythian birth? Perhaps their punishment would have been less severe if they had not been of mixed birth.
    The first story of the passage is about a Scythian philosopher - Anacharsis. Anacharsis was a man born of mixed Hellenistic culture. His father was a Scythian general and was a Greek. Anacharsis lived in the 6th century BCE and was a philosopher who traveled around Scythia and Greece, learning and adopting new and various cultures from the people he met. It was for this adoption of new customs that Anacharsis was eventually put to death. After visiting Czyicus and attending a festival worshiping the Mother of the gods, Anacharsis returned to Scythia and had his own ceremony of worship for the mother goddess. He was discovered by some of the people of his town and was then put to death.
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  5. page Intolerance of Intermarriage edited ... What We Can Learn Intolerance was not a theme uncommon to the ancient world. In fact, it isn'…
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    What We Can Learn
    Intolerance was not a theme uncommon to the ancient world. In fact, it isn't really a theme that is uncommon in today's world. However, in the case of ancient Scythia, new cultures and ideas were met with a much more closed mind than those of today. This excerpt shows us just a small piece of the way with which new cultures and ideas were met in ancient times. Though this passage (written by Herodotus) only has two short stories within it, we really can learn the extent of the intolerance the Scythian's had. Scythia was not a Greek territory. The Scythians were an Iranian nomadic people living in present day Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The territory covered by Scythia ranged from the Black Sea to southern Siberia to central Asia. The Scythians had their own religion, customs, and way of life, vastly different from the Greeks.
    As a whole, the Scythian people were made up of different tribes, each with different languages and cultures. Militarily speaking, the Scythians were archers, similar to the Persians. The tribes were often at war with each other, creating havoc within the Scythian war. During these tribal wars, the nomadic tribes were primarily focusing on attacking the more developed regions to the east.
    These two stories show the extent to which the Scythians would go to preserve customs and keep out foreign customs. Herodotus really said it best at the end of this passage by stating, "thus rigidly do the Scythians maintain their own customs, and thus severly do they punish such as adopt foreign usages." But is this intolerance something that was more widely practiced across Greece during ancient times? Would these men have been killed if they had been of original Scythian birth? Perhaps their punishment would have been less severe if they had not been of mixed birth.
    The first story of the passage is about a Scythian philosopher - Anacharsis. Anacharsis was a man born of mixed Hellenistic culture. His father was a Scythian general and was a Greek. Anacharsis lived in the 6th century BCE and was a philosopher who traveled around Scythia and Greece, learning and adopting new and various cultures from the people he met. It was for this adoption of new customs that Anacharsis was eventually put to death. After visiting Czyicus and attending a festival worshiping the Mother of the gods, Anacharsis returned to Scythia and had his own ceremony of worship for the mother goddess. He was discovered by some of the people of his town and was then put to death.
    The second story of the passage is about Scylas, a Scythian king. While Scylas was not a native of Scythia, he was born to the king of Scythia. He was raised by his mother, a woman from Istria. Essentially, Scylas grew up Greek. When it was time for him to ascend the throne, he did so, observing Scythian customs in public, even though he hated the Scythian ways. But in private, he lived the life of a Greek, dressing Greek and worshiping Greek gods and goddesses. He had to do this in secret, however. While he was living his Greek life, he would travel to Borysthenites with his army, but leave them at the front of the city so that he could live his Greek life in secret. He eventually wanted to be initiated into the Bacchic mysteries. When he was initiated, Scylas went mad. The Scythian people found out about his secret Greek life and his initiation into the Bacchic mysteries and revolted and put Octamasadas in charge. When Scylas found out about the danger he was in, he tried to flee the city. Octamasadas tricked him into surrendering on the pretense that he would be safe. However, when Scylas surrendered, Octamasadas beheaded him on the spot.
    The Scythians traded on a regular basis with the Greeks, beginning in the late 5th and early 4th centuries BCE. We know now that trading was a key element to the spread of different cultures and ideas, so it makes sense to us that the Scythians would have picked up on some Greek traditions, whether they wanted to or not. However, that is not something that the Scythians knew, and I'm sure it made it that much harder for their civilization to preserve their customs and traditions. But why were they so averse to new ideas and cultures? That is one question that remained unanswered for me.
    When looking at this passage, one gathers that the Scythians were a group that wanted to maintain their customs at any and all costs. Is that something that can be related to today? Absolutely. While America has always been called the "melting pot" of different cultures, are we all really so tolerant of each other? Not a chance. Sure, there are cities that have different cultures living and working together, but it has taken a long time to get here. Within those cities are sectors that are segregated to certain cultures remaining together to retain their cultural identities. And while we may not go around killing each other for adopting different customs and implementing them into our daily lives, what about the rest of the world? Iraq for instance, is a country where different sectors of one religion are killing each other on a daily basis because they are so intolerant of the others' views and customs. We can gather from this passage that although thousands of years have past since this was written, intolerance has not died and is something that will continue on.
    Lingering Questions:
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    2. What would lead one to join the Bacchic Mysteries?
    3. While reading this passage and constructing this wikipage, I began thinking about our recent class lectures about Macedon. Macedon was a culture that was not inherently Greek, but the leaders and citizens welcomed Greek cultures. Teachers, musicians, playwrights, and philosophers were even imported from Greek to Macedon. What makes a society like Macedon tolerate and accept Greek culture into their own but keeps a society like Scythia from tolerating the same cultures?
    4. If the Scythians were so against mixing of cultures, why would they let Scylas be their king after his father's death, knowing he was not entirely of Scythian birth?
    Comments and Criticisms
    I really like how straightforward your answers are, it makes for very easy reading and understanding. One thing that I think would be beneficial would be to give more information if there is any about why the two groups hated one another. Other than that nicely written. -Stephanie Davis
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    Anacharsis. (2012, October 02). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anacharsis
    Great mother of the gods. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/243491/Great-Mother-of-the-Gods
    Lendering, J. Scythians.Retrieved from http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/scythians/scythians.html
    Rambaud, A. (1900). Rambaud on the greek colonies and the scythia of herodotus.. Retrieved from
    http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/GrScyth.html
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    1:57 pm
  6. page Croesus Tests the Oracles edited ... Croesus Tests The Oracles and Gives Presents- Herodotus I. 47-52: Document & Document Ana…
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    Croesus Tests The Oracles and Gives Presents- Herodotus I. 47-52:
    Document & Document Analysis:
    Black text represents the document and red text represents the interpretation.
    At the end of this time the grief of Croesus was interrupted by intelligence from abroad. He learnt that Cyrus, the son of Cambyses, had destroyed the empire of Astyages, the son of Cyaxares; and that the Persians were becoming daily more powerful. This led him to consider with himself whether it were possible to check the growing power of that people before it came to a head. With this design he resolved to make an instant trial of the several oracles of Greece, and one of them in Libya. So, he sent his messengers in different directions, some to Delphi, some to Abae in Phocis, and some to Dodona; others to the oracle of Amphiaraus; others to that of Trophonius; others, again, to Branchidae in Milesia. These were the Greek oracles which he consulted. To Libya he sent another embassy, to consult the oracle of Ammon. These messengers were sent to test the knowledge of the oracles, that if they were found really to return true answers, he might send a second time, and inquire if he ought to attack the Persians.
    This beginning section introduces Croesus learning new information that Cyrus had destroyed the empire of Astyages and the Persian Empire was gaining more and more power. As a result of this knowledge, he began to question whether he would be able to take on the growing empire. He decided to consult numerous oracles by dispatching messengers to the oracle of Abae, Dodana, Amphiaraus, Trophonius, Branchidae and Ammon. The reason for sending to many ambassadors to so many oracle sites was to test them. If the oracles gave true responses back to Croesus, then he would inquire their knowledge for a second time regarding whether or not to attack the Persian Empire.
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    Why did he determine that the oracle at Delphi was the best? Why not any of the others?
    These are some questions that remain unanswered by the passage itself. As to the time of when this sequence of events occurred, we can estimate a year based other primary sources and historical research (it was said to be around 546 BCE), but it is not directly stated in the passage itself. Regarding why Croesus made his messengers wait 100 days before asking the oracles the first of his questions and how he determined that the oracle at Delphi was superior to the others is something we'll never know; we can only speculate. Croesus sent many messengers to numerous oracles but to guess as to why he chose that one is questionable. It's difficult to try to understand the thought process of a great king from 2500 years ago, but everything is up to interpretation by the reader.
    Sources:
    http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/historians/narrative/persianwars.html
    http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters&FileName=croesus.php
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croesus_and_Fate
    http://www.ancient.eu.com/lydia/
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphiaraus
    http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/ancoracles.html
    http://historynerds.wetpaint.com/page/Herodotus+of+Halicarnassus

    The summary throughout the text is great! It helps to understand as the reader views the document rather than being confused until the very end. Maybe relate how Tolstoy's synopis can be understood in today's terms. Great work! -Alexandra Watkins
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    - Lindsay GaardeGaard
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    1:53 pm

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